This how-to will explain exactly how to add these icons to your desktop, in a completely graphical way.
1. You're going to follow this path in the Ubuntu panel:
Applications --> --> Configuration Editor.
2. If the above path existed, skip this step.
Sometimes System Tools isn't in the menu by default. It's simple to change by simply hovering your mouse over the taskbar, and Right-click --> Edit Menus. However, it is much easier to press
ALT + F2, and in the , copy/pasting
3. On the left side of the configuration editor, follow this path:
Apps --> Nautilus --> Desktop.
4. Now, on the right side, select the checkboxes for "computer_icon_visible", "home_icon_visible", "trash_icon_visible", and whatever else applies to your wants/needs.